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    Physicists

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    James Clerk Maxwell
    James Clerk Maxwell, Scottish physicist best known for his formulation of electromagnetic theory. He is regarded by most modern physicists as the scientist of the 19th century who had the greatest influence on 20th-century physics, and he is ranked with Sir Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein for the...
    Biography
    James Clerk Maxwell
    Hermann von Helmholtz
    Hermann von Helmholtz, German scientist and philosopher who made fundamental contributions to physiology, optics, electrodynamics, mathematics, and meteorology. He is best known for his statement of the law of the conservation of energy. He brought to his laboratory research the ability to analyze...
    Biography
    Helmholtz.
    Enrico Fermi
    Enrico Fermi, Italian-born American scientist who was one of the chief architects of the nuclear age. He developed the mathematical statistics required to clarify a large class of subatomic phenomena, explored nuclear transformations caused by neutrons, and directed the first controlled chain...
    Biography
    Enrico Fermi
    Max Planck
    Max Planck, German theoretical physicist who originated quantum theory, which won him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1918. Planck made many contributions to theoretical physics, but his fame rests primarily on his role as originator of the quantum theory. This theory revolutionized our...
    Biography
    Max Planck
    Werner Heisenberg
    Werner Heisenberg, German physicist and philosopher who discovered (1925) a way to formulate quantum mechanics in terms of matrices. For that discovery, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics for 1932. In 1927 he published his uncertainty principle, upon which he built his philosophy and for...
    Biography
    Werner Heisenberg
    Carl Friedrich Gauss
    Carl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician, generally regarded as one of the greatest mathematicians of all time for his contributions to number theory, geometry, probability theory, geodesy, planetary astronomy, the theory of functions, and potential theory (including electromagnetism). Gauss was...
    Biography
    Carl Friedrich Gauss
    Albert Einstein
    Albert Einstein, German-born physicist who developed the special and general theories of relativity and won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921 for his explanation of the photoelectric effect. Einstein is generally considered the most influential physicist of the 20th century. Einstein’s parents...
    Biography
    Albert Einstein
    Ernest Rutherford
    Ernest Rutherford, New Zealand-born British physicist considered the greatest experimentalist since Michael Faraday (1791–1867). Rutherford was the central figure in the study of radioactivity, and with his concept of the nuclear atom he led the exploration of nuclear physics. He won the Nobel...
    Biography
    Ernest Rutherford
    Isaac Newton
    Isaac Newton, English physicist and mathematician, who was the culminating figure of the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century. In optics, his discovery of the composition of white light integrated the phenomena of colours into the science of light and laid the foundation for modern physical...
    Biography
    Isaac Newton
    Joseph Black
    Joseph Black, British chemist and physicist best known for the rediscovery of “fixed air” (carbon dioxide), the concept of latent heat, and the discovery of the bicarbonates (such as bicarbonate of soda). Black lived and worked within the context of the Scottish Enlightenment, a remarkable...
    Biography
    Joseph Black, detail of an engraving by J. Rogers after a portrait by Sir Henry Raeburn
    Guglielmo Marconi
    Guglielmo Marconi, Italian physicist and inventor of a successful wireless telegraph (1896). In 1909 he received the Nobel Prize for Physics, which he shared with German physicist Ferdinand Braun. He later worked on the development of shortwave wireless communication, which constitutes the basis of...
    Biography
    Guglielmo Marconi
    P.A.M. Dirac
    P.A.M. Dirac, English theoretical physicist who was one of the founders of quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. Dirac is most famous for his 1928 relativistic quantum theory of the electron and his prediction of the existence of antiparticles. In 1933 he shared the Nobel Prize for Physics...
    Biography
    P.A.M. Dirac
    Al-Bīrūnī
    Al-Bīrūnī, Muslim astronomer, mathematician, ethnographist, anthropologist, historian, and geographer. Al-Bīrūnī lived during a period of unusual political turmoil in the eastern Islamic world. He served more than six different princes, all of whom were known for their bellicose activities and a...
    Biography
    Al-Bīrūnī, Afghan commemorative stamp, 1973.
    Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac
    Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac, French chemist and physicist who pioneered investigations into the behaviour of gases, established new techniques for analysis, and made notable advances in applied chemistry. Gay-Lussac was the eldest son of a provincial lawyer and royal official who lost his position with...
    Biography
    Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac, engraving by Ambroise Tardieu.
    Galileo
    Galileo, Italian natural philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician who made fundamental contributions to the sciences of motion, astronomy, and strength of materials and to the development of the scientific method. His formulation of (circular) inertia, the law of falling bodies, and parabolic...
    Biography
    Galileo
    John Dalton
    John Dalton, English meteorologist and chemist, a pioneer in the development of modern atomic theory. Dalton was born into a Quaker family of tradesmen; his grandfather Jonathan Dalton was a shoemaker, and his father, Joseph, was a weaver. Joseph married Deborah Greenup in 1755, herself from a...
    Biography
    John Dalton
    Niels Bohr
    Niels Bohr, Danish physicist who is generally regarded as one of the foremost physicists of the 20th century. He was the first to apply the quantum concept, which restricts the energy of a system to certain discrete values, to the problem of atomic and molecular structure. For that work he received...
    Biography
    Neils Bohr
    Michael Faraday
    Michael Faraday, English physicist and chemist whose many experiments contributed greatly to the understanding of electromagnetism. Faraday, who became one of the greatest scientists of the 19th century, began his career as a chemist. He wrote a manual of practical chemistry that reveals his...
    Biography
    Michael Faraday
    Henry Cavendish
    Henry Cavendish, natural philosopher, the greatest experimental and theoretical English chemist and physicist of his age. Cavendish was distinguished for great accuracy and precision in research into the composition of atmospheric air, the properties of different gases, the synthesis of water, the...
    Biography
    Cavendish, Henry
    William Thomson, Baron Kelvin
    William Thomson, Baron Kelvin, Scottish engineer, mathematician, and physicist who profoundly influenced the scientific thought of his generation. Thomson, who was knighted and raised to the peerage in recognition of his work in engineering and physics, was foremost among the small group of British...
    Biography
    Kelvin, William Thomson, Baron

    Physicists Encyclopedia Articles

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