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The American colonies under British rule had become used to a large degree of autonomy. The British win the French and Indian War in 1763, but the cost of the war greatly increases their debt. They begin to exert more control and impose new taxes on the colonies.
Like the Sugar Act (1764), the Stamp Act is enacted to provide revenue for the British crown. This act places a tax on legal documents, newspaper advertisements, and other printed materials. Enraged colonists protest the Stamp Act, and the British government ends the tax.
Britain passes the Townshend Acts, a series of additional taxes. The colonists vehemently object to these taxes, and opposition toward the British grows throughout the colonies, particularly in Boston, Massachusetts. In response, in October 1768, Parliament sends two units of the British army to Boston.
March 5, 1770
In Boston a small British army troop is threatened by mob harassment and opens fire, killing five colonists. This incident becomes known as the Boston Massacre.
December 16, 1773
In a show of protest against the British tax on tea and the perceived monopoly of the East India Company, Bostonians disguised as Mohawk Indians board ships at anchor and dump thousands of dollars’ worth of tea into the harbor, an event popularly known as the Boston Tea Party.
In retaliation for colonial resistance, the British Parliament imposes four measures known as the Intolerable (or Coercive) Acts: the Boston Port Act, Massachusetts Government Act, Administration of Justice Act, and Quartering Act.
September 5, 1774
In response to the Intolerable Acts, the First Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Fifty-six delegates represent all the colonies except Georgia. The representatives called on Britain to cancel the Intolerable Acts. Britain responds by sending more troops to the colonies.
April 18–19, 1775
On the night of April 18, 1775, Paul Revere rides from Charlestown to Lexington (both in Massachusetts) to warn that the British are marching from Boston toward Concord, Massachusetts. The British force of 700 men is met by 77 minutemen in Lexington. It is unclear who fires the first shot, but it starts a clash that leaves eight Americans dead. At Concord the British are met by hundreds of militiamen. Outnumbered and running low on ammunition, the British troop is forced to retreat to Boston.
June 17, 1775
The first major battle of the American Revolution is the Battle of Bunker Hill. Although the British win the battle, they lose more than 40 percent of their men. The battle is a moral victory for the Americans.
Forced to leave New York City and driven across New Jersey by the British, George Washington and the Continental Army strike back on Christmas night by secretly crossing the icy Delaware River. They surprise the Hessian fort at Trenton, New Jersey, at dawn and take about 900 prisoners.
October 17, 1777
While British forces under the command of General John Burgoyne capture Fort Ticonderoga in New York on July 5, 1777, they lose subsequent battles in Vermont and New York. With his forces depleted, Burgoyne surrenders at Saratoga, New York.
December 19, 1777–June 19, 1778
Following several losses, Washington and 11,000 soldiers camp for the winter at Valley Forge, 22 miles (35 kilometers) northwest of British-occupied Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Their time there is marked by widespread disease, hunger, and bitter cold, but they emerge in the spring as a stronger force.
With the colonists’ victory in Saratoga, a Franco-American alliance is formed. France, which has been secretly furnishing financial and military aid to the Americans since 1776, now begins preparing fleets and armies to enter the fight.
March 1, 1781
The Articles of Confederation, a plan of government organization prior to the U.S. Constitution of 1787, were written in 1776–77 and adopted by the Congress on November 15, 1777. The articles are fully ratified by the states on March 1, 1781.
British General Charles Cornwallis joins other British forces in Virginia, setting up base at Yorktown. Washington joins forces with the comte de Rochambeau, and their combined troops attack Yorktown. Cornwallis surrenders his army of more than 7,000 men on October 19, 1781.
September 3, 1783
The Peace of Paris is signed on this day, formally ending the war. Britain recognizes the independence of the United States with generous boundaries to the Mississippi River but retains Canada.