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In 1588 the English fleet defeats the Spanish Armada and establishes the superiority of English ships and seamanship. England is now ready to enter the race for overseas trade and possessions.
Elizabeth’s successor is James I. After succeeding to the throne in 1603 he lays plans to colonize North America. The first permanent English settlement on the continent is Jamestown Colony, Virginia, founded in 1607.
The great Navigation Act is passed. This and other Navigation Acts eventually create a closed economy between Britain and its colonies. All colonial exports have to be shipped on English ships to the British market, and all colonial imports have to come by way of England.
An expedition sent by Oliver Cromwell wrests control of Jamaica from Spain. English settlers bring in vast numbers of enslaved Africans to work the sugar estates on the island.
The first permanent British settlement on the African continent is made at James Island (later Kunta Kinteh Island) in the Gambia River, which becomes a key post in the transatlantic slave trade.
By this time there are British American colonies in New England, Virginia, and Maryland and settlements in the Bermudas, Honduras, Antigua, Barbados, and Nova Scotia, Canada.
British colonial administrator Robert Clive overthrows the nawab, or ruler, of Bengal in the Battle of Plassey on June 23. This victory makes Clive the virtual master of Bengal.
Britain’s capture of Quebec during the French and Indian War virtually ends France’s power in North America.
The Treaty of Paris officially ends the Seven Years’ War. By this treaty France renounces to Great Britain all of mainland North America east of the Mississippi River (excluding New Orleans and environs); the West Indian islands of Grenada, Saint Vincent, Dominica, and Tobago; and all French conquests made since 1749 in India or in the East Indies. Spain cedes Florida to the British.
The American Revolution takes place. The American colonists prevail in the war, and Britain recognizes the United States as an independent nation.
The British Empire gains new settlements in Australia. The empire’s Canadian colonies grow as loyalists from the United States emigrate to Canada after the American Revolution.
The slave trade is abolished in British colonial possessions in 1807 and slavery itself in Britain’s dominions by 1833.
New Zealand becomes officially British, after which systematic colonization there follows rapidly. Partly owing to pressure from missionaries, British control is later extended to Fiji, Tonga, Papua, and other islands in the Pacific Ocean.
Deep resentment toward British policies leads to a widespread but unsuccessful rebellion by the sepoys (native Indian soldiers employed by the East India Company) against British rule in India. Although the rebellion is stopped, it reveals the limits of the company’s power. After the Indian Mutiny the British government takes direct rule of India, beginning the period of the British raj. As a result, the company is dissolved, and India becomes an official British colony.
European nations meet in Berlin to divide Africa. Britain wins the most territory, which stretches from South Africa to Egypt. In 1885 local Indian leaders form the Indian National Congress to promote independence from Great Britain.
The dominion of the Union of South Africa is formed from the Cape Colony, Natal, and the former Boer republics of Transvaal and the Orange Free State.
Mahatma Gandhi becomes a leader of the Indian National Congress. He will eventually lead India to independence.
The term British Commonwealth of Nations is applied to largely self-governing dependencies that acknowledge an increasingly symbolic British authority. (The Commonwealth will ultimately evolve into a free, voluntary association of sovereign states that maintain ties of friendship and cooperation and that continue to acknowledge the British monarch as symbolic head of their association.)
The Mountbatten Plan partitions the subcontinent into Hindu-controlled India and Muslim-controlled Pakistan on June 3. India gains independence on August 15, marking the end of British rule and the establishment of a free and independent Indian nation.
The Gold Coast becomes the first sub-Saharan African colony to reach independence (as Ghana). The movement of Britain’s remaining colonies in Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean toward self-government gains speed in later years.
The last significant British colony, Hong Kong, is returned to Chinese sovereignty. By this time virtually nothing remains of the British Empire. The Commonwealth, however, remains a remarkably flexible and durable institution.