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September 7, 1533
Elizabeth is born in Greenwich, England. Her father is Tudor king Henry VIII. Her mother, Anne Boleyn, is Henry’s second wife. In order to dissolve his marriage with his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, Henry had separated England from the authority of the Roman Catholic Church. Catherine of Aragon had only one surviving child, Mary. The king’s ardent hope was that Anne Boleyn would give birth to a male heir, so the birth of Elizabeth is a bitter disappointment to him.
May 19, 1536
After having accused Anne Boleyn of infidelity and treason, Henry has her put to death at the Tower of London. Soon after the execution Henry marries Jane Seymour. She later gives birth to a son, Edward.
Upon Henry’s death on January 28, Edward succeeds to the throne as Edward VI. Because of his youth the government is run by regents during his reign. Both Elizabeth and Edward are brought up as followers of the Church of England. Their half sister, Mary, is brought up as a Roman Catholic.
Edward VI dies on July 6, 1553. Mary becomes queen and restores Roman Catholicism as England’s state religion. Mary suspects Elizabeth of plotting with the Protestants to gain the throne and has her imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1554. No conclusive evidence of treason by Elizabeth emerges, however, and she is released after two months.
Mary dies on November 17, 1558. Elizabeth is crowned queen of England. She is 25 years old. She has received a good education and is well prepared to rule. She reestablishes the independent Church of England. The young queen chooses as her chief minister William Cecil (Lord Burghley). He will serve as principal adviser to Elizabeth through most of her reign. Elizabeth has many suitors, but she will never marry or have children. Her cousin Mary Stuart—the Catholic queen of Scotland, commonly known as Mary, Queen of Scots—is next in line to the throne.
Having been forced to abdicate the Scottish throne, Mary Stuart flees across the English border to ask for Elizabeth’s help. Elizabeth is distrustful of Mary. Some Catholics regard Mary as England’s rightful queen. Elizabeth promptly has Mary taken into custody, where she will remain for the next 19 years.
Elizabeth encourages exploration and voyages of discovery. She provides financial support for Admiral Francis Drake’s circumnavigation of the globe (1577–80). In the 1580s Walter Raleigh, one of her favorites at court, sends out several expeditions in an effort to establish an English colony in North America. The name Virginia—in honor of the Virgin Queen, as Elizabeth is called—is given to the area explored in 1584 during one of these expeditions.
During the 19 years that Mary Stuart is Elizabeth’s prisoner, some English Catholics form plots to liberate her and to place her on the throne of England. Finally, Mary is accused of having a part in the so-called Babington Plot to assassinate Elizabeth. Parliament demands her execution, Elizabeth signs the warrant, and Mary is beheaded on February 8, 1587.
Catholic king Philip II of Spain assembles a great fleet of ships called the Armada to attack England. The Armada sails into the English Channel in July 1588. The English ships that meet them are smaller but possess superior speed and maneuverability. In the fighting that ensues the English inflict terrible losses on their enemy. The naval victory over the Spanish Armada is a high point of Elizabeth’s reign.
The first installment of Edmund Spenser’s poem The Faerie Queene (Books I–III) is published in 1590. The second installment (Books IV–VI) appears in 1596. The poem, an elaborate allegory dedicated to Queen Elizabeth, is one of the greatest long poems in the English language. Among other great writers active during Elizabeth’s reign are Sir Philip Sidney, Christopher Marlowe, and William Shakespeare.
William Cecil dies. His son, Robert Cecil, 1st earl of Salisbury, succeeds him as Elizabeth’s chief minister.
Robert Devereux, 2nd earl of Essex, and one of Elizabeth’s favorites at court, undertakes to defeat rebel forces in Ireland led by Hugh O’Neill, earl of Tyrone. Essex’s campaign is unsuccessful. He returns from Ireland against the queen’s orders and, after Elizabeth deprives him of his offices, attempts to raise an insurrection against her. He is tried for treason and executed on February 25, 1601.
Elizabeth dies on March 24. She is buried with great magnificence in Westminster Abbey. Mary Stuart’s son, James VI of Scotland, succeeds Elizabeth on the English throne. He is proclaimed James I of England.