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The Opium Wars were two armed conflicts in China in the mid-19th century between forces of Western countries and of the Qing dynasty. The first Opium War (1839–42) was fought between China and Britain. The second Opium War (1856–60), also known as the Arrow War or the Anglo-French War in China, was fought by Britain and France against China. In each case the foreign powers were victorious and gained commercial privileges and legal and territorial concessions in China. The wars seriously weakened the Qing dynasty
Opium had been introduced into China in the 7th century. By 1729 it had become such a problem that the Yongzheng emperor (ruled 1722–35) prohibited the sale and smoking of opium. That failed to hamper the trade, however.
When the British later discovered the value of the opium trade, they determined to benefit. There was a great demand in the West for Chinese goods such as tea, silk, and porcelain, but there was not much demand in China for Western goods. The British improved their trade balance by obtaining opium from India and selling it at a great profit in China.
In 1839 the Chinese government made a concerted effort to suppress the opium trade. That spring Imperial Commissioner Lin Zexu ordered that all opium stored by British merchants in warehouses in Canton (Guangzhou) be confiscated and destroyed.
The antagonism between the two sides increased in July when drunken British sailors killed a Chinese villager. The British government, which did not wish its subjects to be tried in the Chinese legal system, refused to turn the accused men over to the Chinese courts. Hostilities broke out later that year when British warships destroyed a Chinese blockade of the Pearl River (Zhu Jiang) estuary at Hong Kong.
In1840 the British government authorized a military expedition against China. That June warships arrived at Hong Kong. The British fleet attacked and occupied Canton in May 1841.
Subsequent British campaigns over the next year were likewise successful against the inferior Qing forces, despite a determined counterattack by Chinese troops in the spring of 1842. The British held against that offensive, however, and captured Nanjing (Nanking) in late August, which put an end to the fighting.
The first Opium War ended on August 29, 1842, with the Treaty of Nanjing. China paid the British an indemnity of $21 million, ceded the territory of Hong Kong, and agreed to establish a “fair and reasonable” tariff. British merchants, who had previously been allowed to trade and reside only at one port (Canton), were now permitted at five “treaty ports.”
In Canton, where the xenophobic Governor-General Ye Mingchen was inciting the Cantonese to annihilate the British, the Arrow incident occurred in October 1856, leading to the second Opium War. The war began after Canton police boarded the British-registered ship Arrow and charged its crew with smuggling. In this war the British were joined by the French.
Shortly after the Arrow incident, British consul Harry Parkes sent a British fleet up the Pearl River estuary to fight its way to Canton. The French later joined the venture. An Anglo-French force occupied Canton late in 1857.
In May 1858 allied troops in British warships reached Tianjin (Tientsin) and forced the Chinese into negotiations.
In 1858 four treaties of Tianjin temporarily halted the fighting, opened new ports to Western trade, allowed foreign emissaries to reside in Beijing, gave freedom of movement to Christian missionaries, and permitted travel in the interior. Further negotiations that year legalized the importation of opium.
In June 1859 the British and French tried to reach Beijing to ratify the treaties. However, the fleet was blocked at Dagu and driven back with heavy casualties, and the Chinese refused to ratify the treaties.
The allies resumed hostilities. In October 1860 a considerably larger force of warships and British and French troops captured Beijing and plundered and then burned the Yuanming Garden, the emperor’s summer palace.
The Chinese subsequently signed the Beijing Convention, in which they agreed to observe the treaties of Tianjin. They also ceded to the British the southern portion of the Kowloon Peninsula adjacent to Hong Kong.
The Opium Wars opened China to Western trade and influence but greatly reduced the Qing dynasty’s power and prestige. The dynasty would last only about another 50 years until it was overthrown in 1911/12.