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November 10, 1483
Martin Luther is born in Eisleben, Saxony (now in Germany).
Luther receives a liberal arts degree and then a master’s degree. He begins law school.
July 17, 1505
Luther abruptly abandons the study of law and enters a monastery after a violent thunderstorm frightens him so badly that he vows to become a monk if he survives.
Luther receives his doctorate and becomes a professor of biblical studies. He begins to publish his writings on religion.
Luther finds out that another religious leader has supposedly told followers that buying an indulgence (in other words, making a payment to the church) causes God to forgive a person’s sins. Luther writes the Ninety-five Theses, a document that explains why indulgences are wrong. Luther posts the Ninety-five Theses on the door of the Schlosskirche (Castle Church), Wittenberg, on October 31. This event will come to be considered the beginning of the Protestant Reformation—the split of Western Christianity between Roman Catholics and Protestants.
Luther becomes convinced that salvation, or reconciliation with God, is entirely a work of divine grace—even though traditional church teachings hold that salvation is achieved through God and through the good works that people do. On November 9 the pope issues a document about indulgences, but Luther says the pope is not the only person who can explain what the Bible says.
The pope issues a document that warns Luther to recant, or take back what he said. Luther publicly sets it on fire.
The pope formally excommunicates Luther, throwing him out of the church. The pope says Luther is a heretic—an outlaw who should be captured and burned to death. However, the German king (and Holy Roman emperor) Charles V had vowed that no German would be convicted without a proper hearing.
April 17, 1521
Luther appears at an official meeting called the Diet of Worms in Germany. His accusers ask him to declare that the books he has published are wrong, but he insists that he cannot unless someone can find evidence in the Bible that he is wrong. Charles V declares Luther an outlaw after the Diet of Worms adjourns, but local ruler Frederick III of Saxony keeps Luther in hiding for the better part of a year. During this period Luther begins to translate the New Testament into German. Before this, the commonly used Bible was in Latin, which relatively few people other than priests understood.
Other reformers arise, suggesting changes to the Western church.
Peasants revolt in Germany, demanding reforms based on the writings of Luther and others.
Luther publicly disagrees with other religious reformers on issues of theology. The reform movement splinters.
June 13, 1525
Luther marries Katherine of Bora, a former nun. She is so brilliant that his students nickname her “Dr. Katie.” Luther and Katherine go on to have six children.
Luther’s health worsens. He continues to preach, teach, write, and get into disagreements with religious and political leaders.
February 18, 1546
Luther dies after a long journey to Eisleben, the town where he was born.