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The Mughal dynasty in India is founded by Bābur, a descendant of Mongol conqueror Genghis Khan and of Turkic conqueror Timur (Tamerlane). Bābur defeats the sultan of Delhi, Ibrāhīm Lodī, in the Battle of Panipat in 1526. At the time of Bābur’s death in 1530, his empire includes all of northern India from the Indus River on the west to Bihar on the east and from the Himalayas south to Gwalior. The Mughals, who are Muslims, will become noted for their well-organized government, sophisticated culture, and their attempt to integrate Hindus and Muslims into a united Indian state.
1530–40 and 1555–56
Bābur is succeeded by his son Humāyūn, but Humāyūn loses control of the empire to Afghan rebels in 1540. He regains his throne in 1555 but dies from a fall the next year.
Humāyūn’s son Akbar consolidates the Mughal Empire. Through incessant warfare, he is able to annex all of northern and part of central India. Akbar builds a new capital, Fatehpur Sikri, near Delhi. Although he never renounces Islam, he takes an active interest in other religions, persuading Hindus, Parsis, Christians, and Muslims to engage in religious discussion. He establishes political, administrative, and military structures that give the empire stability and staying power.
Akbar’s son Jahāngīr continues his father’s administrative system and policy of religious tolerance toward Hinduism. He builds impressive gardens and monuments and, under his patronage, Mughal painting reaches a high level of elegance and richness during his reign. In 1611 the British build the first factories in India, which marks the beginning of European influence.
The reign of Jahāngīr’s son Shah Jahān marks the cultural zenith of the Mughal Empire. Shah Jahān develops a passion for building. The Taj Mahal of Agra, one of the most beautiful structures in the world, is built by Shah Jahān as a mausoleum for his wife Mumtaz Mahal. At Delhi Shah Jahān builds a huge fortress-palace complex called the Red Fort as well as the Great Mosque, which is among the finest mosques in India. His military expeditions, however, nearly bankrupt the empire.
Jahān’s son Aurangzeb comes to power in 1658. During his reign he annexes the Deccan kingdoms of Vijayapura (Bijapur) and Golconda and thereby extends the empire to its greatest size. However, his intolerance of other religions gives rise to tensions that will eventually lead to the dissolution of the empire. His destruction of Hindu schools and temples and persecution of Sikhs, in particular, arouse strong opposition to his rule. By the time of Aurangzeb’s death in 1707, his authority is disputed throughout his dominions.
Over this period of time, the empire begins to break up under the combined pressures of dynastic warfare, sectional rivalries, and attacks by various warlords and invaders. In 1803 the British East India Company assumes control over Delhi, the last remaining Mughal territory.
The last Mughal emperor, Bahādur Shah II, reigns. He figures briefly, and unwillingly, in the Indian Mutiny of 1857–59. During the mutiny rebel troops from the city of Meerut seize Delhi and compel Bahādur Shah to accept nominal leadership of the revolt. After the rebellion is put down by the British, Bahādur Shah is exiled to Burma (Myanmar) with his family. His removal marks the end of the Mughal Empire.