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Since the 18th century foreign traders (primarily British) have been illegally exporting opium, mainly from India to China, but that trade grows dramatically. Addiction to opium among the Chinese population increases, causing serious social and economic problems.
The Chinese government, determined to suppress the opium trade, confiscates and destroys more than 20,000 chests of opium—some 1,400 tons of the drug—that are warehoused at Canton (Guangzhou) by British merchants. Later that year fighting breaks out when British warships destroy a Chinese blockade of the Pearl River (Zhu Jiang) estuary at Hong Kong.
A British expeditionary force arrives at Hong Kong in June. The British fleet proceeds up the Pearl River estuary to Canton.
After months of fruitless negotiations, British forces attack and occupy Canton in May. Fighting continues in other areas over the next year. The Qing forces are outmatched by the British.
The British capture Nanjing (Nanking) in late August, which puts an end to the fighting in the first Opium War. Peace negotiations proceed quickly, resulting in the Treaty of Nanjing, signed on August 29. By its provisions China is required to pay Britain a large indemnity, cede Hong Kong Island to the British, and increase the number of treaty ports where the British can trade and reside from one to five.
The British Supplementary Treaty of the Bogue (Humen), signed October 8, gives British citizens extraterritoriality (the right to be tried by British courts) and Britain most-favored-nation status, granting the country any rights in China that might be granted to other foreign countries. Other Western countries quickly demand and are given similar privileges.
In early October some Chinese officials board the British-registered ship Arrow while it is docked in Canton, arrest several Chinese crew members (who are later released), and allegedly lower the British flag. Later that month a British warship sails up the Pearl River estuary and begins bombarding Canton. There are skirmishes between British and Chinese troops. France, using as an excuse the murder of a French missionary in China in February, decides to join Britain in the conflict. Like Britain, France hopes to force concessions from the Chinese.
Allied British and French forces begin military operations in late 1857. They quickly capture Canton, depose the city’s governor, and install a more compliant official in his place.
British and French troops reach Tianjin in May and force the Chinese into peace negotiations. The treaties of Tianjin are signed in June. The treaties provide residence in Beijing for foreign envoys, the opening of several new ports to Western trade and residence, and the right of foreign travel in the interior of China, among other concessions.
British ships, transporting British and French diplomats to Beijing to validate the Tianjin treaties, try to sail pass the Dagu forts but are refused passage. Fighting breaks out, and the British are driven back, suffering heavy casualties. The Qing government refuses to ratify the signed treaties.
British and French forces capture Beijing in October and burn the emperor’s summer palace. China signs the Beijing Convention, which ends the second Opium War. The Chinese accept the terms of the treaties of Tianjin, which they had refused to ratify. They also cede the southern portion of the Kowloon Peninsula to the British.