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    Early commercial whaling

    While the Basques acquired experience, northern Europeans developed more capital and better markets. Drafting Basque whalemen for Arctic explorations, the English Muscovy Company initiated the exploitation of whaling bays around the island of Spitsbergen in 1610. The Dutch followed immediately and, with a combination of violence and better business organization, broke the English monopoly, which had already stifled competition. Smeerenburg (“Blubbertown”) was built on Spitsbergen after 1619. In its heyday during the 1630s and ’40s, Smeerenburg had 150 men servicing whalers that hunted the Greenland right, or bowhead, whale in the surrounding Arctic Ocean.

    The demise of Arctic bay whaling in the mid-1650s owed less to overfishing than to a miniature ice age that lasted for the rest of the 17th century. Smeerenburg shut down in the 1660s, although Dutch and German whalers navigated the open-sea ice. Whales were flensed (stripped) alongside the vessels, and their blubber, preserved to some extent by the cold, was taken home in barrels. This Greenland phase of whaling extended into the Davis Strait after 1719 and was dominated by the Dutch and Germans until the 1780s, when Britain forged ahead in order to service its industrial revolution.

    Since the 1690s the British had pursued extensive “fishing” from bay stations in the North American colonies, and Cape Cod, Long Island, and Rhode Island became new centres of activity. There a new type of whaling was inaugurated in 1712, when a Nantucket vessel caught the first sperm whale, whose waxy oil and spermaceti were worth far more than right whale oil. Sperm whales are smaller than right whales and are pelagic, living in the open ocean. Sperm whaling lured expeditions into warmer waters, where rapid putrefaction of blubber was overcome in midcentury by the introduction of onboard rendering. Henceforth, voyages were limited only by the whaler’s capacity and the crew’s endurance. Hunts extended into the whale-rich seas of the Pacific, and four-year cruises became common, often mixing pelagic whaling with sealing and bay whaling for right whales. This vanguard incidentally opened the Pacific to British and American explorations and annexations.

    During the 18th and early 19th centuries, whaling vessels were chiefly merchant ships (occasionally barks) transporting equipment, crews, and catch. They were double-hulled and reinforced with beams against sea ice and were heavily armed against attack. Displacing 250–350 tons, these vessels were two or three times the tonnage of the average merchant ship for the sake of cargo capacity. Three tiers of barrels could be crammed below deck, while crews berthed on the half deck. American whaling ships were initially smaller than British vessels and were painted to look like warships. During the 19th century purpose-built barks measuring 30–45 metres (100–150 feet) and displacing 300–400 tons became more common, and in the 1850s clipper ships gained favour.

    Throughout this period, catching was by hand-thrown harpoon from double-ended boats carrying five to seven men. The boats usually measured seven to nine metres long, and in America they were made of half-inch cedar planks. European Arctic boats were stronger, carver-built craft with oak frames and three-quarter-inch fir planking. Harpooners and boatsteerers were the key men when the strike was made. After the harpoon hit its mark, the whale was “played” at the end of ropes and killed by lance when exhausted. The catch was then towed to the whaler, where blubber and baleen were cut away by men either working from fragile platforms or walking with spiked boots directly upon the carcass. Finally, what was left of the animal was winched on deck for cutting, casking, and carrying home. From about 1760 onward, sperm whales were rendered in “try-works”—a pair of very large cast-iron pots (try-pots) on a water-filled brick structure approximately two by three metres situated near the forward hatch. The only other technical innovation of this period—the harpoon gun—was introduced around 1800 but proved to be a failure.

    Both northern and southern whaling entered the doldrums about 1860. The U.S. fleet of over 700 vessels (New Bedford alone registered 429 in 1857) declined rapidly, owing principally to the discovery in Pennsylvania of petroleum (1859), which replaced sperm oil and spermaceti candles. The British Arctic fleet was devastated in the 1830s and ’40s by overfishing and frozen seas. The introduction of whale-product substitutes, such as vegetable oil, steel-boned corsets, and gas lamps, was partially offset by rising industrial demand. Residual whaling activity continued in the South Pacific and the Davis Strait until about 1914, and the taking of North Pacific right whales from San Francisco continued into the 1920s.

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